that comes up after reviewing these numbers is:

Has there been a change in the last decade or so?

Our BJS statistics date from about 2006, and as we wrote just a few days ago tell an entirely fictional tale where law enforcement in the United States is basically perfect when it comes to committing actionable constitutional violations, because the rate is roughly .25% calculated based on those statistics.

From that standpoint, the entirely independent data from various city police departments tell a somewhat more encouraging story. With the exception of Dallas, all of the cities we sampled yielded a figure substantially higher than the .25% based on the existence and outcomes of federal court 1983 actions.

Our own opinion is that figures like 2% in Philly and 3% in LA are still much lower than reality would dictate. But not orders of magnitude lower where the relevant officials are just basically in la la land.