The FCC has adopted rules instituting stringent compliance requirements on gateway providers, which pass international call traffic into American phone networks, to ensure that these providers are complying with the STIR/SHAKEN caller ID authentication protocols in order to combat illegal robocalls.  The FCC also requires gateway providers to take additional measures to validate the identity of providers whose traffic they are routing.  The Commission will seek further public comment on expanding robocall mitigation requirements beyond just gateway providers but to all U.S. based intermediate providers.