The question of whether the Hague Convention permits international service on defendants by mail was taken on by the Supreme Court in 2017 in the case Water Splash v. Menon. It’s well established that the intent behind rules that govern the service of legal documents is to ensure that persons or companies are informed of legal proceedings against them. Disputes over proper service are common in state and federal courts, sometimes used by defendants when they lack substantive defenses to claims. For international matters, many countries have agreed to abide by the rules set forth in the Hague Convention in order to create uniform expectations for international legal proceedings. Still, there are often disagreements on how those rules should be implemented. The Circuit Courts were not able to agree on whether to permit international service by mail. In 2017, the Supreme Court decided Water Splash, Inc. v. Menon, holding that service by mail is permitted under the Hague Convention.