Daniel A. Zlatnik

Latest Articles

Operators of social media platforms and other websites typically manage their risks by imposing terms of use or terms of service for the sites. As we previously wrote, websites must implement such terms properly to ensure that they are enforceable. Specifically, users must be required to manifest acceptance of the terms in a manner that results in an enforceable contract. But what specifically constitutes such acceptance, and what steps should website operators take to…
Under section 512(f) of the Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA), copyright owners are liable for “any damages” stemming from knowingly false accusations of infringement that result in removal of the accused online material. Section 512(f) aims to deter abuse of the DMCA requirement that service providers process takedown requests from purported copyright owners, but such abuses remain rampant. (E.g., as reported here and here.) In fact, until the March 2, 2015, decision in Automattic
Digital music has come a long way since the era of widespread unauthorized sharing, with digital music sales estimated to be approaching $6 billion worldwide. As this market grows, a natural question is whether there can be a legitimate digital analog to the traditional “used music” market. One company, ReDigi, sought to create such a market and suggested that it would create “billions of dollars in wealth” by imparting resale value to lawfully obtained…
It is well settled that Internet search engines’ reproduction of limited portions of copyrighted materials in order to direct Internet users to locations of original content constitutes “fair use” under the Copyright Act. (See, for example, Perfect 10, Inc. v. Amazon.com, Inc. and Kelly v. Arriba Soft.) But where is the line between, on the one hand, a search engine’s fair use of a small amount of material to enable users to locate the original…
Online “virtual worlds,” such as Second Life, have their own cultures, customs and economies.  This presents new challenges for applying existing intellectual property laws to user-created content in such virtual worlds, as illustrated by a recent case in the Northern District of California, Amaretto Ranch Breedables, LLC v. Ozimals, Inc.. Second Life places users, or “residents,” into a virtual world where they participate in a virtual economy, trading virtual goods and services with…
When consumers sue online service providers for data breaches involving such consumers’ personally identifiable information (“PII”), courts routinely dismiss such suits based on the failure to allege an “injury in fact” as required to establish constitutional standing — see, for example, the decisions in Bell v. Acxiom Corporation and Amburgy v. Express Scripts, Inc.  In a recent ruling by the District Court for the Northern District of California in Claridge v. RockYou, Inc.,…