As the world seeks sustainable and cleaner energy solutions, nuclear power has emerged as a promising option. India, as a rapidly growing economy, recognizes the importance of nuclear energy in meeting its increasing power demands while reducing carbon emissions. Traditionally, the nuclear power industry in the country has been predominantly government-driven, with limited involvement from domestic private companies. However, a transformative proposal is on the horizon, which could reshape India’s nuclear landscape permanently.

A panel assembled by Niti Aayog, India’s premier think-tank, has recommended bold changes to the nuclear laws in India, potentially lifting the ban on foreign investment in the sector. This move could pave the way for collaboration, innovation, and progress, as both domestic and foreign private companies may participate in nuclear power generation alongside public enterprises. This article explores the implications of this proposal and the potential challenges that may arise from introducing Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) in India’s nuclear energy sector.

The Current Landscape

The Atomic Energy Act of 1962[1] in India establishes a significant role for the government in developing and operating nuclear power stations. While domestic private companies are allowed as “junior equity partners,” their involvement is mainly limited to supplying components and assisting in construction. So far, foreign investment in the nuclear power sector has been prohibited in the country.[2]

India’s heavy reliance on coal-fired power generation, constituting three-quarters of its total power production, underscores the urgent need for cleaner and sustainable alternatives. Nuclear energy, with its ability to provide a continuous energy supply, stands out as a viable solution compared to intermittent sources like solar energy.

The Visionary Recommendations of Niti Aayog

The panel appointed by Niti Aayog, under the leadership of Prime Minister Narendra Modi, has proposed two revolutionary recommendations. Firstly, they advocate significant amendments to India’s foreign investment policies, enabling both domestic and foreign private companies to collaborate and support nuclear power generation alongside public enterprises. Opening the sector to foreign investment can bring in opportunities, capital, and technological expertise.

Secondly, the panel focuses on encouraging private sector participation by adopting Small Modular Reactors (SMRs). These innovative reactors, known for their compact size and factory-built design, hold immense promise in rapidly expanding nuclear energy generation. SMRs offer advantages such as reduced capital requirements, shorter deployment timelines, and smaller land footprints compared to conventional reactors.[3] Additionally, their enhanced safety features make them suitable for deployment in densely populated areas, addressing concerns about safety and accessibility.[4]

Attractiveness of FDI in India

In recent years, India has become an attractive destination for foreign investment, drawing substantial inflows across various sectors. However, the Government of India’s Consolidated FDI Policy currently prohibits foreign investment in the atomic energy sector. Nevertheless, there is no such restriction on FDI in the industry for manufacturing nuclear equipment and parts for nuclear power plants and related facilities. As India pursues cleaner and more sustainable energy sources, the prospect of FDI in nuclear power becomes increasingly appealing and aligns with the country’s ambitious growth objectives.

Welcoming Foreign Technology Partners

The recommendation to allow FDI in India’s nuclear energy sector is poised to foster collaboration between domestic and foreign private companies. Nuclear power, with its characteristic of zero carbon emissions, can effectively complement India’s growing baseload power demand, a critical factor in driving the nation’s development goals.

The Department of Atomic Energy (DAE) has already acknowledged the interest of foreign companies like Westinghouse Electric, GE-Hitachi, Electricite de France, and Rosatom in participating as technology partners, suppliers, contractors, and service providers in India’s nuclear power projects.[5] These international collaborations have the potential to bring advanced technology and expertise, further boosting the country’s nuclear energy capabilities.

Promising Prospects and Future Growth

In November of the preceding year, Jitendra Singh, the Minister of State for the Department of Atomic Energy and Department of Space, advocated exploring private players’ involvement in developing SMRs. The atomic energy department conducted consultations with both domestic and global industry players, revealing substantial interest from private entities.[6] This positive response indicates that with the right policy incentives, the private sector could make significant contributions to India’s nuclear energy goals.

“With the right policy push, we see the private sector taking up significant deployment in the country,” says an official, affirming the potential transformative impact of private participation.[7]

The Push for Private Participation

The recommendation to permit foreign investment in nuclear energy aims to fast-track energy generation through small modular reactors (SMRs). These innovative SMRs, which can be factory-built and ready-to-shift, have a capacity of up to 300 megawatts (MW) and require less capital, time, and land compared to conventional reactors.[8] Their ability to be safely deployed in populated areas adds to their appeal as an alternative power generation option.

State-run Nuclear Power Corp of India (NPCIL) and Bharatiya Nabhikiya Vidyut Nigam currently dominate nuclear power generation in India. However, the proposed policy changes envision increased private participation through SMRs to diversify and expand the nuclear energy sector.[9] Partnerships with government-controlled companies like NTPC and Indian Oil Corp may further facilitate private involvement in nuclear projects.

Challenges and Complexities

While permitting FDI in the nuclear energy sector offers numerous opportunities, it is not without its complexities and challenges. The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act 2010,[10] aimed at addressing liability concerns related to nuclear incidents, may require further clarification, especially concerning its application to emerging nuclear technologies like small modular reactors and advanced reactors. The role of private and foreign companies as Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators necessitates thorough evaluation, involving the establishment of new protocols and regulatory frameworks to ensure safe and efficient operation.

Recent Developments

Amidst the push for FDI in the nuclear energy sector, several notable developments have taken place, signaling India’s intent to accelerate its clean energy transition. Union Minister Dr. Jitendra Singh’s call for critical technology development of small modular reactors and the signing of a supplementary Joint Venture (JV) agreement between the National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) and Nuclear Power Corporation of India Ltd. (NPCIL) for NPP development exemplifies the proactive approach of the Indian government.[11] Additionally, the amendment of the Atomic Energy Act 1962 in 2015 has allowed Joint Ventures (JV) of Public Sector Enterprises to set up nuclear power projects, further demonstrating the government’s commitment to a comprehensive and inclusive approach.[12]


India stands at a transformative stage in its energy journey. The recommendations put forth by the Niti Aayog panel to permit foreign investment in nuclear energy and encourage private sector participation have the potential to unlock a new era of progress, innovation, and sustainability. By embracing Small Modular Reactors and leveraging international collaborations, India can position itself as a formidable player in the global pursuit of clean and reliable nuclear energy. The nation’s commitment to stringent safety standards and adherence to international agreements reinforce its responsible and peaceful approach to nuclear technology.

As India continues to prioritize cleaner and more sustainable energy sources, strategic collaboration and FDI in the nuclear energy sector could play a pivotal role in realizing the nation’s decarbonization goals. By embracing change and fostering meaningful partnerships, India can propel its nuclear energy sector towards a greener, more sustainable, and more resilient future. As the country sets its sights on achieving net-zero emissions and enhancing its energy security, the prospect of FDI in nuclear energy emerges as a compelling avenue for progress and innovation.


What are the proposed reforms in nuclear laws in India by Niti Aayog?

The Niti Aayog panel has recommended bold changes to nuclear laws in India, aiming to allow foreign direct investment (FDI) in the nuclear energy sector. The reforms seek to overturn the existing ban on foreign investment and enable domestic and foreign private companies to complement nuclear power generation by public enterprises.

Why is FDI in the nuclear energy sector attractive for India?

FDI in the nuclear energy sector is attractive for India due to its potential to bring in capital, advanced technology, and expertise. With India’s ambition to generate 9% of its electricity from nuclear energy by 2047 and its commitment to clean energy transition, foreign investment can play a crucial role in accelerating the expansion of nuclear power capacity.

What opportunities do Small Modular Reactors (SMRs) offer for India’s nuclear energy sector?

SMRs offer promising opportunities for India’s nuclear energy sector. With their compact size, factory-built design, and enhanced safety features, SMRs can provide a cost-effective and efficient solution for rapid nuclear energy expansion. They require less capital, time, and land compared to conventional reactors and can be safely deployed in densely populated areas, making them a viable alternative for sustainable power generation.

[1] Atomic Energy Act 1962, [Act No. 33 of 1962]





[6] [Posted On: 02 AUG 2023 4:12PM by PIB Delhi]



[9] Dr. Prashant Prabhakar Deshpande, Prospects of foreign investment in India’s nuclear power industry – A focus on pros and cons – Part – I

[10] The Civil Liability for Nuclear Damage Act 2010, [Act no. 38 of 2010]