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The investigation proceedings began on 7 January 2020 with the aim of assessing possible unfair elements of certain clauses contained in the clubs’ general terms and conditions, specifically relating to the purchase of annual season tickets and single match tickets by football fans (as consumers). In particular, the clauses examined by AGCM concern the lack of the right for the consumer to obtain: a refund of part of the season ticket, or of the individual…
As part of our recent look at the rise of data protection representative actions across Europe (see here Part 1 and Part 2), we predicted a continued increase in such actions being pursued in various jurisdictions, including England. In a significant recent development, a campaign group called Facebook You Owe Us has signalled its intent to launch a representative action against Facebook in the English courts before the end of this year.  The proposed…
Website blocking orders in IP cases (mostly, though not solely, in relation to copyright-infringing websites) are routinely granted in several jurisdictions, whether in Europe or third countries. The availability of such relief has been established in case law, administrative frameworks and academic studies alike. The Court of Justice of the European Union (‘CJEU’) expressly acknowledged the compatibility of such a remedy with EU law in its 2014 decision in UPC Telekabel. Also the European…
AI capabilities have evolved beyond curating playlists based off our individual listening habits and can now imitate deceased artists in autonomously created songs. Earlier this year, Californian-based OpenAI introduced their Jukebox project which has been ‘taught’ to generate new music and lyrics in a variety of genres and styles and has even managed to almost-convincingly replicate the suave tones of Frank Sinatra singing an original Christmas song[1]. Jukebox’s AI musical creations are a…
This year has changed the perception of sports events all over the world. Not only have we become used to football matches without spectators, but the way that we consume big sporting events has also changed significantly in the last year. Sports broadcasting itself had to adjust to the new environment. The question that looms as we look forward to a 2021 that it is hoped will include a phased return to “normality” is whether…
Time for publishers to flex their vocal cords? Predictions about the growth of smart speaker sales during the lockdown enforced by Covid-19 have not entirely come to fruition, but there is still significant optimism about the potential for the technology. A recent report by Juniper Research suggested that by 2024 there would be more voice assistant devices than people on earth, with growth driven by their increased use in mobile devices. The lockdown has, however,…
Until now, Trade Licensing Authorities have rather addressed compliance of influencer marketing with special requirements for certain types of products, such as tobacco or alcohol. The number of enforcement cases is still very low, and proceedings are usually initiated upon consumers’ complaints. The imposed fines were relatively low, usually around EUR 50 – 100. The penalizing effect is therefore debatable, given the fact that many influencers do influencer marketing for a living and their income…
The UK’s vibrant festival sector The inquiry will also consider the “economic and cultural contribution that music festivals make to the UK”. The UK’s “legendary” festival sector – comprising major events such as Glastonbury, Reading & Leeds, and Wireless Festival, as well as a myriad of independent festivals – undoubtedly forms a significant part of the UK’s cultural landscape and attracts worldwide attention. In 2018, 4.9 million people attended a festival
Over the last decade, advertising has changed dramatically, with social media platforms gaining in importance compared to traditional outlets. In particular, brands have sought to market to younger demographics via platforms such as Facebook and Instagram in order to reach potential customers that typically consume far less traditional media than older generations. Regulatory bodies have had to move rapidly to adapt to this fast-changing area, issuing new regulations, creating guidance documents, and investigating influencers for…