As we have reported in previous articles, the Department of Justice’s Antitrust Division has repeatedly reaffirmed its intent to criminally prosecute companies that restrict labor market competition through the use of unlawful no-poach and wage-fixing agreements. On May 17, 2018, a high-ranking Division official offered further guidance by announcing that the Division is taking a heightened look at unlawful no-poach agreements and other antitrust violations in the healthcare industry.

Antitrust Enforcement Policy In The Trump Era

On October 20, 2016, the DOJ and Federal Trade Commission released Antitrust Guidance for Human Resource Professionals, stating that agreements between companies to either prevent hiring from their respective workforces, or set artificial limitations on employee wages, would be subject to criminal prosecution if such agreements are not reasonably tied to a larger, legitimate collaboration between the companies (see our related article, dated November 9, 2016).  Approximately fifteen months later, on January 19, 2018, Assistant Attorney General Makan Delrahim confirmed that such Guidance remained in effect under the Trump Administration, and signaled that multiple enforcement actions were in the works (see our related article, dated January 25, 2018).

The Division partially delivered on that promise when, on April 3, 2018, it filed a consent agreement with two rail equipment supplier for maintaining purported naked no-poach agreements over a period of several years (see our related article, dated April 25, 2018).  Although the nature of that enforcement action was civil rather than criminal, the Division explained that it exercised such lenience only because the defendants discontinued the unlawful arrangements before the Division published its Antitrust Guidance.  Further, in a Division update dated April 11, 2018, which included a summary of the case, the Division offered the following warning:

Market participants are on notice: the Division intends to zealously enforce the antitrust laws in labor markets and aggressively pursue information on additional violations to identify and end anticompetitive no-poach agreements that harm employees and the economy.

Antitrust Official Offers An Update On Anticipated Enforcement Measures

On May 17, 2018, in remarks delivered at the American Bar Association’s Antitrust in Healthcare Conference, the Deputy Assistant Attorney General for the DOJ, Barry Nigro, reiterated the Division’s intent to initiate criminal enforcement actions in the near future, including in connection with unlawful no-poach agreements. Mr. Nigro further announced that during the week of May 7, 2018, the Division welcomed a new Acting Deputy Assistant Attorney General for criminal enforcement.  It is unclear from Mr. Nigro’s remarks whether there is any relationship between this change in leadership and the lack of any criminal actions to date.

In addition to signaling its general intent to initiate criminal enforcement actions, Mr. Nigro stated that the Division was placing priority status on violations in the healthcare industry. As Mr. Nigro explained, “few, if any, segments of our economy merit higher priority when it comes to antitrust enforcement, and healthcare has long been an enforcement priority for the Antitrust Division and our friends at the Federal Trade Commission.”

The bulk of Mr. Nigro’s speech was focused on consumer-related antitrust violations, like price fixing, bid rigging, and customer allocation agreements, as well as mergers that likely would lead to increased costs and reduced quality of medical care. In fact, he made just one passing reference to violations affecting the labor market, stating that the Division is “investigating other potential criminal antitrust violations in this industry, including … no-poach agreements restricting competition for employees.”  Therefore, one can only speculate as to when the Division will initiate criminal enforcement actions in connection with a no-poach and/or wage-fixing agreement, as well as which industry will be targeted first.

We are following this topic closely and will update readers on any significant developments. Until then, companies are encouraged to contact a Jackson Lewis attorney for strategies on how to maintain a stable workforce and determine employee wages without running afoul of the antitrust laws.

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Photo of Clifford R. Atlas Clifford R. Atlas

Clifford Atlas is a Principal in the New York City, New York, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He is the Co-Leader of the Non-Competes and Protection Against Unfair Competition Practice Group.

Mr. Atlas works extensively with clients in developing and drafting employment contracts and restrictive covenant agreements, and developing programs to best protect clients’ confidential business information. He has significant experience in prosecuting as well as defending actions involving breach of non-competition and non-solicitation agreements, employee raiding, misappropriation of confidential information, tortious interference with contract, unfair competition, and related business claims. Mr. Atlas also has assisted clients in employment issues arising from corporate transactions.

Additionally, Mr. Atlas handles all types of employment discrimination, harassment, disability, wrongful discharge, and related employment tort, contract, wage-hour and employee benefits claims. He has tried cases in state and federal courts, and before administrative agencies. Mr. Atlas has argued numerous appeals to the United States Court of Appeals for the Second Circuit.

Mr. Atlas joined Jackson Lewis in 1985.

Photo of Erik J. Winton Erik J. Winton

Erik J. Winton is a Principal in the Boston, Massachusetts, office of Jackson Lewis P.C. He is the Co-Leader of the firm’s Non-Competes and Protection Against Unfair Competition practice group. His practice focuses on restrictive covenant drafting, counseling, litigation avoidance and litigation. He regularly provides valuable counsel to clients in New England and across the country regarding these issues.

Mr. Winton has extensive experience as a litigator, including successful first chair jury trial experience. He represents employers in federal and state courts and administrative agencies in matters involving discrimination claims based on race, sex, sexual preference, national origin, and disability; retaliation, whistle blowing, wage/hour claims and Department of Labor complaints; allegations of wrongful discharge and breach of contract under the common law; and claims for tortuous injury, such as defamation, infliction of emotional distress and interference with advantageous relations. Mr. Winton has prevailed on the vast majority of dispositive motions filed on his clients’ behalf, including several reported cases.

Mr. Winton’s practice emphasizes advising employers regarding how to comply with the full range of federal and state labor and employment laws. This includes advising clients on issues relating to disability and leave management, reductions in force, wage and hour laws and workplace safety. Mr. Winton also drafts and negotiates executive employment and severance agreements on behalf of both employers and executives.

Mr. Winton speaks frequently regarding employment law issues. He joined the firm in 2000 after five years as a litigator at Fitzhugh & Associates (now Fitzhugh & Mariani, LLP), a litigation boutique with offices in Boston and Hartford, Connecticut. While attending law school, he was on the staff of the Cardozo Arts & Entertainment Law Journal.

Photo of Colin A. Thakkar Colin A. Thakkar

Colin Thakkar is the Knowledge Management (“KM”) Attorney for Jackson Lewis P.C.’s Non-Competes and Protection Against Unfair Competition Practice Group, and is based in the Jacksonville, Florida, office.

In his role, Mr. Thakkar serves as a subject-matter expert on restrictive covenant agreements and unfair competition litigation; creates and manages legal and electronic resources and materials to provide innovative client services; serves as a resource for other practice group members; monitors and analyzes regulatory and case law developments; and contributes to the firm’s blogs and legal updates.

Since 2005, Mr. Thakkar has represented and counseled employers nationwide with regard to federal, state, and local employment laws. In addition to representing companies in non-compete, non-solicitation, and other unfair competition lawsuits, he has defended employers against claims alleging discrimination, unpaid wages, ERISA violations, and other employment-related matters. Mr. Thakkar also has significant experience representing and advising employers regarding traditional labor law issues, including labor arbitrations, unfair labor practice charges, and the interpretation of collective bargaining agreements.